University physics volume 2 by Samuel Ling, Jeff Sanny PDF free download

Samuel Ling, Jeff Sanny University physics volume 2 PDF, was published in 2016 and uploaded for 100-level Science and Technology students of University of Ibadan (UI), offering PHY104 course. This ebook can be downloaded for FREE online on this page.

University physics volume 2 ebook can be used to learn temperature, heat, thermal equilibrium, thermometer temperature scale, thermal expanusion, heat transfer, specific heat, calorimetry, heat capacity, thermodynamics, work, heat, internal energy, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, carnot cycle, entropy, electricity, magnetism, electric charge, electric field, conductors, insulators, Coulomb's law, electric dipoles, Gauss law, electric flux, electric potential, capacitor, capacitance, electrical current, resistivity, resistance, Ohm's law, electrical eenrgy, power, super conductors, electromotive force, magnetic forces, magnetic fields, hall effect, Biot-Savart law, solenoids, toroids, Faraday's law, Lenz's law, induced electic fields, eddy current, electric generators, inductance, transformers, electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum.

Technical Details
Updated at:
Size: 13.4 MB
Number of points needed for download: 68
Number of downloads: 9

Books related to University physics volume 2

Basic principle of physics 2(introductry electricity and magnetism )

Author: TT Ogunseye

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY104

Topics: Electric charges, Coulomb’s law, Conductors, insulators, Electric Field Intensity, Charge Distribution, Electric Field Lines, Electric Field Lines, Charge Density, Volume Charge Density, Surface Charge Density, Line Charge Density, Electric Field, Electric Flux, Gauss’s Law, Electric Field Calculation, Electric Potential, Electrical Potential Energy, Equipotential Surfaces, Capacitance, Dielectrics, Current Electricity, capacitor, Electric current, Electric Current Density, Resistance, Resistivity, Conductivity, Electromotive Force, Internal Resistance, Direct Current Circuits, resistance, Kirchhoff’s Current Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, energy, power, Wheatstone Bridge, Potentiometer, Slide Wire Bridge, Electrodynamics, Mass Spectrometer, hall effect, Magnetic Field, Magnetic Forces, Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s Circuital Law, Electromagnetic Induction, Magnetic Flux, Lenz's law, Mutual Inductance, Self Inductance

Engineering Thermodynamics Work and Heat Transfer ,Fourth edition

Author: Gordon Rogers, Yon Mayhew

School: Rivers State University of Science and Technology

Department: Engineering

Course Code: FEC251

Topics: Engineering Thermodynamics, Work, Heat Transfer, Thermodynamic properties, temperature, Law of Thermodynamics, Non-Flow Processes, Constant volume process, Constant pressure process, Polytropic process, Adiabatic process, Isothermal process, Flow Processes, Nonsteady-flow processes, Boiler, condenser, Throttling, Reciprocating compressor, Cycle efficiency, Reversibility, irreversibility, Exergy, Gibbs function, steady-flow system, Properties of Fluids, Vapour Power Cycles, carnot cycle, rankine cyclel, reheat cycle, regenerative cycle, economiser, air preheater, steam cycles, Gas Power Cycle, gas turbine cycle, Closed-cycle gas turbine, Intercooling, reheating, Combined gas, steam cycles, Reciprocating engine cycles, Heat Pump, Refrigeration Cycles, Reversed Carnot cycle, Practical refrigeration cycles, Water refrigerator, Absorption refrigerators, Gas cycles, Hygrometry, psychrometry

Applied Thermodynamics, 2nd edition

Author: RK Rajput

School: Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

Department: Engineering

Course Code: MCE309

Topics: Applied Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics, steam, Internal Latent Heat, entropy, steam generators, boilers, steam boiler, Fire Tube Boilers, Water Tube Boilers, High Pressure Boilers, boiler mountings, draught, chimney, evaporative capacity, boiler efficiency, steam power cycles, Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle, Modified Rankine cycle, Regenerative cycle, Reheat cycle, Binary vapour cycle, reciprocating steam engine, compound steam engines, Multi-Cylinder Engines, uniflow steam engine, steam nozzles, nozzle efficiency, steam injector, steam turbines, turbine efficiencies, reheating steam, steam turbine governing, steam turbine control, steam condensers, condensing plant, jet condensers, surface condensers, gas power cycles, air standard efficiency, dual combustion cycle, Atkinson cycle, Ericsson cycle, Brayton cycle, internal combustion engines, Four-Stroke Cycle Engines, Two-Stroke Cycle Engines, ignition system, fuel injection system, electronic fuel system, cooling system, lubrication systems, Performance Number, Combustion Chamber Design, octane number, Diesel Knock, cetane number, supercharging, dissociation, Engine Performance Curves, Wankel Rotary Combustion Engine, Stratified Charge Engines, Duel-Fuel Engines, air compressors, Reciprocating Compressors, volumetric efficiency, Multi-stage Compression, compressor performance, intercooler, Compressed Air Motors, Rotary Compressors, gas turbines, jet propulsion, Open Cycle Gas Turbines, Constant Volume Combustion Turbines, Gas Turbine Fuels, refrigeration, Air Refrigeration System, Simple Vapour Compression System, Vapour Absorption System, Refrigerants, Air-conditioning Systems, Air-conditioning, load estimation, Air Distribution

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with modern Physics ,10th Edition

Author: RA Serway, JW Jewitt

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY101

Topics: Modern physics, physics, measurement, motion, vectors, laws of motion, motion, circular motion, Energy of a System, energy, Linear Momentum, Collisions, rotation of rigid bodies, Angular Momentum, Static Equilibrium, Elasticity, Universal Gravitation, Fluid Mechanics, Oscillations, Mechanical Waves, Oscillatory Motion, wave motion, Superposition, Standing Waves, thermodynamics, temperature, Law of Thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, heat engines, entropy, electricity, magnetism, electric fields, Continuous Charge Distributions, Gauss’s Law, electric potential, Capacitance, Dielectrics, current, resistance, Direct-Current Circuits, magnetic fields, Faraday’s Law, inductance, Alternating-Current Circuits, electromagnetic waves, light, optics, image formation, wave optics, Diffraction Patterns, Polarization, Quantum Physics, relativity, Quantum Mechanics, atomic physics, Molecules, Solids, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Cosmology

Electricity and Magnetism

Author: Teruo Matsushita

School: University of Ilorin

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY152, PHY252, ITE105, ITE302

Topics: electrostatic field, conductor, electrostatic induction, capacitor, electrostatic, dielectric material, electric polarization, electric flux density, boundary conditions, steady current, ohm's law, electromotive force, Kirchhoff's law, current, magnetic flux density, Biot-savart law, superconductors, inductance, coils, magnetic energy, magnetic force, magnetic material, magnetization, magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, induction law, skin effect, displacement current, electromagnetic potential, Poynting vector, electromagnetic wave, wave guide, spherical wave, retarded potential, Maxwell's equation

Electricity and Magnetism

Author: PHY112

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112

Topics: Electric Charge, Insulators, Conductors, Semiconductors, Charging by Induction, Coulomb’s Law, Coulomb’s Law Equation, Electric Field, Continuous Charge Distribution, Electric Field Lines, electric potential, Capacitors, Dielectric, capacitance, current, resistance, Ohm's law, resistivity, conductivity, electrical power, Kirchhoff rule, Electrical instrument, Ammeter, voltmeter, galvanometer, Wheatstone bridge, potentiometer

Lectures on Heat and Thermodynamics

Author: Michael Fowler

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY103

Topics: heat, thermal expansion, gas law, energy conservation, heat flow, latent heat, specific heat, calorimetry, Kinetic theory of gases, Velocity space, potential energy, Brownian motion, ideal gas thermodynamics, specific heat, isotherm, adiabat, heat engine, carnot cycle, engine efficiency, entropy, molecular collision, mean free path, conduction, convection, radiation

Electricity and magnetism

Author: Paul Amon

School: Benue State University, Makurdi

Department: Engineering

Course Code: PHY103

Topics: Electricity, magnetism, Electromagnetic interaction, electrostatic force, electric charge, Coulomb’s law, Electric potential, potential difference, electron volt, electric dipole, dipole moment, electric flux, Gauss Theorem, capacitors, dielectrics, current electricity, electric current, Ohm’s Law, Electrical Resistance, Resistivity, Electrical Conductivity, Ohmic Conductors, Superconductors, Electric Cell, resistor combination, Electric energy, electric power, wattmeter, electrolysis

Sears and Zemansky's University Physics with Modern Physics students solution manual, 14th Edition

Author: Hugh Young, Roger Freedman

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112, PHY113, PHY114, PHY115

Topics: Units, Physical Quantities, Vector, Motion, Newton's law, Work, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, Energy conservation, Momentum, impulse, collision, rigid bodies, rotational motion, equilibrium, elasticity, fluid mechanics, gravitation, periodic motion, mechanics, mechanical waves, sound, hearing, temperature, heat, thermodynamics, electrical charge, electric field, electric potential, Gauss law, capacitance, dielectric, current, resistance, electromotive force, direct-current circuit, magnetic field, magnetic force, electromagnetic induction, inductance, alternating circuit, electromagnetic wave, Light, Geometric optics, Interference, Diffraction, Relativity, photons, quantum mechanics, wave functions, atomic structure, molecule, condensed matter, Nuclear physics, particle physics, cosmology, electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, modern physics

Sears and Zemansky's University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition

Author: Hugh Young, Roger Freedman

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112, PHY113, PHY114, PHY115

Topics: Units, Physical Quantities, Vector, Motion, Newton's law, Work, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, Energy conservation, Momentum, impulse, collision, rigid bodies, rotational motion, equilibrium, elasticity, fluid mechanics, gravitation, periodic motion, mechanics, mechanical waves, sound, hearing, temperature, heat, thermodynamics, electrical charge, electric field, electric potential, Gauss law, capacitance, dielectric, current, resistance, electromotive force, direct-current circuit, magnetic field, magnetic force, electromagnetic induction, inductance, alternating circuit, electromagnetic wave, Light, Geometric optics, Interference, Diffraction, Relativity, photons, quantum mechanics, wave functions, atomic structure, molecule, condensed matter, Nuclear physics, particle physics, cosmology, electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, modern physics

Schaum’s Outline of College Physics, Twelfth Edition

Author: Eugene Hecht

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112, PHY113, PHY114, PHY115

Topics: Speed, Displacement, Velocity, vector, Uniformly Accelerated Motion, Newton law, Equilibrium, Work, Energy, Power, simple machine, impulse momentum, angular motion, Rigid-body rotation, simple harmonic motion, density, elasticity, fluid, thermal expansion, ideal gas, heat quantity, thermal energy, thermodynamics, entropy, wave motion, sound, Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field, Electric Potential, Capacitance, Current, Resistance, Ohm’s Law, Electrical Power, Kirchhoff’s Law, Magnetic field, Induced EMF, Electric generator, motor, inductance, Alternating current, Light, Lens, Optical instrument, Interference, Diffraction, special relativity, quantum physics, hydrogen atom, multielectron atom, subatomic physics, Nuclear physics

Advance physics Electricity, electromagnetism and optics

Author: PI Ekwo, CC Anazodo, AJ Ekpunobi, Okolo

School: Nnamdi Azikiwe University

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY102

Topics: Electricity, electromagnetism, optics, capacitors, dielectric, capacitance, parallel plate capacitor, dielectric constant, relative permittivity, capacitor network, current electricity, electric current, electronic drift speed, resistance, resistivity, conductivity, Ohm's law, potentiometer, Kirchhoff's law, Wheatstone bridge, electrical heating, electrostatics, magnetic field, magnetic induction, magnetic force, Biot-Savart law, Ampere's circuited law, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell's equation, electromagnetic oscillations, prism, lens

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 4th edition

Author: Douglas Giancoli

School: Edo University

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY121

Topics: measurement, estimating, motion, kinematics, dynamics, friction, circular motion, drag forces, gravitation, Newton's synthesis, work, energy, conservation of energy, linear momentum, rotational motion, angular momentum, static equilibrium, elasticity, fracture, fluids, oscillators, wave motion, sound, temperature, thermal expansion, ideal gas law, kinetic theory of gases, thermodynamics, electric charge, electric field, Gauss law, electric potential, capacitance, dielectrics, electric energy storage, electric currents, resistance, DC circuits, magnetism, magnetic field sources, electromagnetic induction, inductance, electromagnetic oscillations, AC circuits, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves, light, reflection, refraction, lenses, optical instruments, wave nature of light, diffraction, polarization, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, molecules, solids, nuclear physics, radioactivity, nuclear energy, elementary particles

Electrical engineering

Author: Clive Maxfield, John Bird, MA Laughton, Andrew Leven, Ron Schmitt, Keith Sueker, Tim Williams

School: University of Benin

Department: Engineering

Course Code: EEE211

Topics: Electrical engineering, Electric Circuit, resistance, resistivity, series, parallel networks, potential divider, capacitors, inductors, electrostatic field, electric field strength, capacitance, capacitors, electric flux density, permittivity, dielectric strength, inductance, DC circuit theory, Kirchhoff's law, Thevenin's theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, alternating voltages, alternating currents, rectification, complex numbers, transient, Laplace Transforms, digital electronics, semiconductors, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistor, Metal-oxide Semiconductor Field-effect Transistors, Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors, Light-emitting Diodes, Analog Electronics, Operational Amplifier, circuit simulation, interfacing, Microcontrollers, Microprocessors, Power Electronics, signals, signal processing, filter design, bandpass filter, notch filter, Switched Capacitor Filter, Monolithic Switched Capacitor Filter, Communications Systems, Analog Modulation Techniques, Digital Modulation Techniques, electromagnetics, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Microwave Techniques, magnetic fields, Electromagnetic Transients, Electromagnetic Interference, Traveling Wave Effects, transformers, Electromagnetic Compatibility

Biological and bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer

Author: Ashim Datta

School: University of Uyo

Department: Engineering

Course Code: CHE513

Topics: equilibrium, energy, conservation, temperature, Energy process, modes of heat transfer, conduction heat transfer, convection heat transfer.freezing, evaporation, radiative heat transfer, mass transfer, equilibrium, mass conservation, kinetics, Fick's law, diffusion mass transfer, convection mass transfer, thermodynamics, Biological Heat transfer, Biological mass transfer, bioenvironmental heat transfer, bioenvironmental mass transfer

Applied Thermodynamics for engineering technologists ,5th edition

Author: TD Eastop, McConkey

School: Federal University, Oye-Ekiti

Department: Engineering

Course Code: MEE205

Topics: Thermodynamics, steady-flow equation, working fluid, reversible process, polytropic process, heat engine, entropy, exergy, heat engine cycle, carnot cycle absolute temperature scale, constant pressure cycle, air standard cycle. Otto cycle, diesel cycle, dual combustion cycle, combustion, fuels, combustion equations, enthalpy, power plant thermal efficiency, steam cycles, rankine cycle, gas turbine cycles, nozzles, jet propulsion, rotodynamic machinery, reciprocating internal-combustion engines, engine output, engine efficiency, supercharging, refrigeration, heat pumps, reversed heat engine cycles, vapour-compression cycles, gas cycles, psychrometry, air-conditioning, heat transfer, conduction equation, conduction, convection, heat exchangers, black-body radiation, combined cycles

Static Electricity

Author: PHS106 FUNAAB

School: Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHS106

Topics: Static Electricity, conductors, insulators, Charge Quantization, Electric Force, Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Strength, electric potential, Electric Potential Difference, Equipotential Surfaces, current electricity, Ohm’s Law

Principles of Physics For Scientists and Engineers

Author: Hafez Radi, John Rasmussen

School: University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY121

Topics: Dimensions, Units, vectors, mechanics, motion, force, work, energy, power, linear momentum, collisions, center of mass, rotational motion, angular momentum, matter, thermodynamics, thermal expansion, kinetic theory of gases, sound wave, light, wave, oscillations, wave motion, optics, interference, diffraction, polarization, electricity, electric field, gauss law, electric potential, capacitor, capacitance, electric circuit, magnetism, magnetic field, Faraday's law, alternating current, maxwell's equation, inductance, oscillating circuits, AC circuits

college physics

Author: OpenStax College

School: University of Ilorin

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115, PHY125, PHY191, PHY142, PHY152, PHY192

Topics: physical quantities, Kinematics, dynamics, FRICTION, DRAG, ELASTICITY, circular motion, gravitation, work, energy, energy resources, force, linear momentum, collisions, statics, torque, rotational motion, Angular momentum, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, TEMPERATURE, KINETIC THEORY, HEAT, HEAT TRANSFER, Thermodynamics, OSCILLATORY MOTION, WAVES, sound, electric charge, electric field, GAS LAWS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, ELECTRIC CURRENT, RESISTANCE, OHM'S LAW, CIRCUITS, BIOELECTRICITY, DC INSTRUMENTS, magnetism, ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, GEOMETRIC OPTICS, VISION, OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS, WAVE OPTICS, SPECIAL RELATIVITY, QUANTUM PHYSICS, ATOMIC PHYSICS, RADIOACTIVITY, NUCLEAR PHYSICS, PARTICLE PHYSICS

Electronics, Power Electronics, Optoelectronics, Microwaves, Electromagnetics, and Radar, 3rd edition

Author: Richard Dorf

School: Edo University

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY213

Topics: Electronics, Power Electronics, Optoelectronics, Microwaves, Electromagnetics, Radar, semiconductors, diodes, semiconductor manufacturing, Microlithography, transistors, Junction Field-Effect Transistors, Bipolar Transistors, Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor, Single Electron Transistors, integrated circuits, integrated circuit technology, Surface Mount Technology, amplifier, signal analysis, active filters, power electronics, Power Semiconductor Devices, power conversion, Lasers, Electromagnetic Fields, magnetism, magnetic fields, magnetic recording, wave propagation, space propagation, wave guides, antennas, Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna, Microwave Devices, Lightning, pulse radar, continuous radar, Electroacoustic Transducers, Ferroelectric Materials, Piezoelectric Materials, Electrostriction, hall effect, superconductivity, dielectric, insulators

Past Questions related to University physics volume 2

Introductory Heat and Thermodynamics pretest and exam by CPMSS,MSSN-2017,2018

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY103

Topics: Energy, heat engine, Otto cycle, Carnot engine, Carnot refrigerator, reversible heat engine, thermometer, heat capacity, linear expansivity, Adiabatic expansion, latent heat, steam engine

JAMB series remix on physics by Samuel Adedara Olaosebikan

Year: 2019

School: WAEC, JAMB & POST UTME

Department:

Course Code: JAMB

Topics: Measurement, scalar quantities, dimensions, vector quantities, linear motion, projectiles, Circular motion, simple harmonic motion, gravitational field, mass, weight, vectors, equilibrium of forces, work, energy, power, friction, viscosity, surface tension, simple machine, elasticity, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, Density, upthrust, Archimedes principle, flotation, pressure, Pascal's principle, temperature, heat, thermal expansion, Kinetic theory, Gas laws, Heat quantity, heat capacity, latent heat, vapors, heat transfer, waves, wave production, wave propagation, wave characteristics, sound waves, light energy, reflection, optical instrument, vision, light dispersion, electromagnetic spectrum, electrostatics, electric field, capacitors, current electricity, electrical energy, electrical power, Magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, electricity conduction, atomic physics, radioactivity, electronics, simple AC circuit

Introductory Heat and Thermodynamics tutorial question by sure excellence educational foundation

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY103

Topics: Temperature, gas, heat, energy, heat transfer, entropy, work

25 Electricity and magnetism question by student christian movement

Year: 2016

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112

Topics: capacitor, battery, Magnet, resistivity, resistor, resistance, potential difference, work, magnetic circuit

Heat and Thermodynamics tutorial question 2 by Ben

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115

Topics: latent heat, internal energy, Carnot engine, engine efficiency, mean free path, specific heat, equipartition of energy, entropy, temperature scales, ideal gas law, constant-volume gas thermometer, sound

Electricity and Magnetism PSSF mock test

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112

Topics: electrostatic force, hydrogen atom, electric field.potential difference, capacitor, magnetic field, cyclotron

Heat and Thermodynamics question and answer

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115

Topics: charge, thermal efficiency, Carnot engine, entropy, internal combustion engine, ideal gas

PHY152 CBT exam practice questions

Year: 2020

School: University of Ilorin

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY152

Topics: Resistance, capacitance, Shunt, electricity, magnetism, Coulomb's Law, Charge, electric field, Gauss' Law

Heat and thermodynamics-2003,2005.2008,2009,2011

Year: 2011

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115

Topics: thermometer, temperature, Maxwell-energy, kinetic energy, entropy, thermodynamic system, ideal gas, kinetic temperature

Total solutions in Mechanics, Thermal Phy & Properties of Matter (PHY111) calculations and theory questions and answers by Kaymath

Year: 2020

School: University of Benin

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY111

Topics: measurements, units, vectors, mechanics, projectile motion, force, Newton's law, circular motion, gravitation, work, energy, power, momentum, rotational motion, temperature, thermometer, calorimetry, kinetic theory, thermodynamics, heat transfer

Heat and thermodynamics mock test

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115

Topics: temperature, work, power, energy, velocity, potential difference, heater, steam

Electricity and magnetism

Year: 2018

School: Bayero University, Kano

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY1220

Topics: Electricity, magnetism, magnetic field, electromagnetic wave

Heat and Thermodynamics practice questions

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY115

Topics: thermometer, ideal absorber, ideal gas, isothermal process, work, Maxwell's energy, kinetic energy, reversible adiabatic expansion, thermal efficiency, root mean square velocity, isobaric process, gas

Electricity and Magnetism question slides by chordry

Year: 2018

School: University of Ibadan

Department: Science and Technology

Course Code: PHY112

Topics: electric field, electric quadrupole, electric field intensity, electric dipole, metal sphere

Tests related to University physics volume 2

Physics (JAMB)

School: WAEC, JAMB & POST UTME

Department:

Course Code: JAMB

Topics: Physics, JAMB, Friction, work, force, motion, speed, velocity, energy, hydraulic press, relative density, hydrometer, gas law, sound wave, wave, light, mirror,capacitor, electricity, pressure